The principle of ion exchangers / ion exchangers is based on replacing ions dissolved in water (= electrically charged particles) with other ions from the ion exchanger material.
The salts dissolved in the water split into cations (= ions with positive charge,) and anions (= ions with negative charge). If the water flows through the ion exchanger material with these dissolved salts, the ions present in the water can be absorbed inside the exchanger material. For this, other ions will be released into the water in an equivalent amount. Only ions of the same charge can be exchanged here. Depending on the application, cation exchangers and / or anion exchangers must therefore be used.
Granulated, solid synthetic resins are generally used as the ion exchange material. They must be insoluble in water and chemically resistant, but, most importantly, suitable for ion exchange. This absorption capacity of an exchanger material is referred to as capacity.
- Softening, partial softening and decarbonization
- Full desalination
- Nitrate removal, Sulfate removal
- Boron removal
- Selective removal of heavy metals from wastewater